Why for this disk the darker color is on the left not the other way around? Isn't the dark object on the right side of the bright background in the big picture?
Same question here. Also notice the unusual patterns in the lower left corner of the camera. To me it seems more like an artifact than something physical.
I think this is because the camera's plane of focus is on the man's face. The image captured by this disk is of the wall behind the man. If we imagine two rays, one from the left side of the disk and one from the right side of the disk, they meet on the plane of focus and
then keep going, so the left ray hits the wall to the right of the right ray, and so the image for things behind the plane of focus is reversed.