Google's portrait mode uses machine learning techniques to attempt to achieve the same effect. The phone camera captures multiple images of a scene at different angles (taking advantage of parallax), as well as some other depth cues (sharpness, face recognition, etc.), to inform the blur effect via neural network.
Whenever I take off my glasses and look at the road light, I also have multiple of these circles in my eye sight. It shows that our eyes work just like some of these lenses.
@jinwoopark1673 Usually that happens to people who have astigmatism (and are frequently also nearsighted like me). There does seem to be some connection between astigmatic lenses and bokeh with regards to how lens focus lights - https://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solutions/understanding-bokeh